Tuesday, September 16, 2008

Wednesday, September 3, 2008

Glossary of Project Management Terms


Glossary of Project Management Terms
Term Definition
Agency A formally organized unit of government having administrative,
programmatic, legal, fiduciary, and regulatory functions ascribed to it through
Legislation, Federal mandate, or other means and for which it receives or
generates revenue.
Assumptions Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true,
real, or certain. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, as are part
of the progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently
identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process.
Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk.
Backup Package A backup package consists of all the related supporting documentation for
expenditures required to successfully pass an audit.
Business Alignment Strategic business alignment represents an agency’s capability to coordinate
all the activities of its components for the purpose of achieving its objectives.
A key to the success of any project is its alignment with the strategic direction
of the sponsoring organization.
Business Case The information necessary to enable approval, authorization and policy
making bodies to assess a project proposal and reach a reasoned decision.
Change Control Board
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or
rejecting changes to the project baselines.
Communication The transmission and validated receipt of information so that the recipient
understands what the sender intends, and the sender is assured that the intent is
Management Plan
A plan describing the organization and control of information transmitted by
whatever means to satisfy the needs of the project. It includes the processes of
transmitting, filtering, receiving and interpreting or understanding information
using appropriate skills according to the application in the project
environment. It is at once the master and the servant of a project in that it
provides the means for interaction between the many disciplines, functions
and activities, both internal and external to the project, and which together
result in the successful completion of that project.
Management (CM)
Technical and administrative activities concerned with the creation,
maintenance and controlled change, throughout the life of the product, of an
item's descriptive and governing characteristics, which can be expressed:
1. In functional terms, i.e. what performance the item is expected to achieve,
2. In physical terms, i.e. what the item should look like and consist of when it
is completed.
Consequences The results following some activity or activities.
Constraints Applicable restrictions that will affect the performance of the project. Any
factor that affects when an activity can be scheduled.
Continuous Quality
Improvement (CQI)
Constantly striving to make things better, which is a particular aim of a
Quality Assurance Program
Contract Administration Managing the relationship with the seller
Contract Review Monitoring and control of performance and progress, making payments,
recommending modifications and approving contractor's actions to ensure
compliance with contractual terms during contract execution.
Contract Closeout Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of any open
Cost Analysis The analysis of the cost elements of a proposal or on-going work. It includes
verification of cost data, evaluation of all elements of costs, and projection of
these data to determine the effect on price.
Cost Control System Any system of keeping costs within the bounds of budgets or standards based
Term Definition
upon work actually performed.
Cost Variance (CV) 1) Any difference between the budgeted cost of an activity and the actual cost
of that activity. 1) In earned value, EV (Earned Value) less ACWP (Actual
Cost of Work Performed) or
Crashing Taking action to decrease the total project duration after analyzing a number
of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration compression for
the least cost.
Critical Path Analysis Procedure for calculating the critical path and floats in a network.
Critical Path Method
A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing
which sequence of activities (which path) has the least amount of schedule
flexibility (the least amount of float). Early dates are calculated by means of a
forward pass, using a specified start date. Late dates are calculated by means
of a backward pass, starting from a specified completion date (usually the
forward pass’ calculated early finish date.
Deliverable Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be
produced to complete a project or part of a project. Often used more narrowly
in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to
approval by the project sponsor or customer
The measurement of physical properties stated in the specifications for a
product/deliverable and compare them with the values for each requirement
documented in the product specifications.
Delphi Technique A process where a consensus view is reached by consultation with experts.
Often used as an estimating technique.
Design Reviews A formal, documented, comprehensive and systematic examination of a design
to evaluate the design requirements and the capability of the design to meet
these requirements and to identify problems and propose solutions.
Documentation The collection of reports, user information and references for distribution and
retrieval, displays, back-up information and records pertaining to the project.
Earned Value The physical work accomplished plus the authorized budget for this work.
The sum of the approved cost estimates (may include overhead allocation) for
activities (or portions of activities) completed during a given period (usually
project-to-date). Previously called budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP)
for an activity or a group of activities.
Engineering or Design
Change Notice (ECN)
The formal release of an engineering or design change.
Engineering or Design
Change Proposal (ECP)
A proposal submitted by the seller in response to a buyer’s request for an ECP
to change the existing contract effort. Only the buyer can initiate the request
for an Engineering Change Proposal. This activity is usually preceded by a
Request For Change. The user, buyer, or the seller can initiate a Request For
Change to the contract. It is an exploratory activity.
Executive Sponsor The sponsor is an executive responsible for the strategic direction of a project.
An Executive Sponsor should have the authority to define project goals,
secure resources, and resolve organizational and priority conflicts. Multiple
studies indicate a direct correlation between the lack of project sponsorship
and project failure. Well-meaning but costly mistakes include substituting a
steering committee for a sponsor, and assuming that a big-budget and highly
visible project does not need a formal sponsor. The Executive Sponsor’s
primary role is to:
· Champion IT projects from initiation to completion
· Participate in the development and selling of the project business
· Present overall vision and priorities for the project
· Assist in determining final funding and project direction
· Serve as executive liaison to key State stakeholders, e.g., legislators,
Term Definition
Agency directors and managers
· Chair the project steering committee
External Project
Management Roles
Roles assigned to the project manager that are not directly associated with the
work of the project.
Formal Acceptance Accepting the delivery of a deliverable or product according to established
processes normally based on verifying that it is in accordance with the Product
Description or specifications of the Project Deliverable.
Gantt Chart or Schedule A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical Gantt or bar
chart, activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the
chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as dateplaced
horizontal bars.
Information Distribution Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely
Internal Project
Management Roles
Roles assigned to the PM or PM team directly related to the work of the
The acquisition, management and distribution of relevant information to the
parties who need to know.
Lessons Learned The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons
learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record.
Life -Cycle A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number
are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations
involved in the project.
Milestones Significant events in the project, usually including the completion of a major
Modeling The creation of a physical representation or mathematical description of an
object, system or problem that reflect the functions or characteristics of the
item involved. Model building may be viewed as both a science and an art.
MOU Any written agreement-in-principle describing how a commitment will be
Multi-Attribute Utility Mathematical tools for defining and comparing alternatives to assist in
decision-making about complex alternatives, especially when groups are
involved. They are designed to answer the question, “What is the best
choice?” The models are based on the assumption that the apparent
desirability of a particular alternative depends on how its attributes are
Network Diagram
A schematic display of the sequential and logical relationship of the activities
which comprise the project. Two popular drawing conventions or notations for
scheduling are arrow and precedence diagramming.
Breakdown Structure
A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages
to organizational units.
Organizational Change
The task of organizational change management is to bring order to an
organization that is responding to a change event. It is not pretending that
change is or can always be well organized and disciplined.
Performance Indexes Project planning and status indicators that periodically measure variances
(usually cost and schedule) and require documented corrective actions to
eliminate the variances that exceed predetermined thresholds.
Term Definition
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). An event-oriented
network analysis technique used to estimate program duration when there is
uncertainty in the individual activity duration estimates. PERT applies the
critical path method, using durations that are computed by a weighted average
of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely duration estimates. PERT computes
the standard deviation of the completion date from those of the path’s activity
durations. Also know as the Method of Moments Analysis.
PMBOK® Project Management Body of Knowledge® An inclusive term that describes
the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with
other professions—such as law, medicine, and accounting—the body of
knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance
it. The PMBOK® includes proven, traditional practices that are widely
applied, as well as innovative and advanced ones that have seen more limited
Probability The likelihood of occurrence. The ratio of the number of chances by which an
event may happen (or not happen) to the sum of the chances of both
happening and not happening.
Procurement Liaison In some governmental entities, this person is designated to be responsible for
the procurement functions for the agency and acts a liaison with the Materials
Management Office and/or the Information Technology Management Office.
Procurement Planning Determining what to procure and when.
Product-oriented WBS A project's product components or elements that make up the overall
deliverable assembled into some hierarchical arrangement that facilitates
project management tracking and control.
Project Baseline Control Established baselines for scope, cost and schedule under some form of version
control. Once the project has been contained in these three dimensions, it can
be measured, monitored and controlled. If a project does not have such
baseline management, it cannot be managed and measured as a closed system,
and must be therefore considered to be out of control.
Project Budget The amount and distribution of money allocated to a project.
The person who espouses the project and secures for it necessary support and
resources. See also Project Sponsor.
Project Change
Management of approved changes to project work content caused by a scope
of work change or a special circumstance on the project (weather, strikes,
Project Charter A document issued by senior management that formally authorizes the
existence of a project. It provides the project manager with the authority to
apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Control Plan A plan describing a sequence of activities which are used to steer the project
towards conformance with project requirements
Project Deliverable(s) Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be
produced to complete a project or part of a project. Often used more narrowly
in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to
approval by the project sponsor or customer.
Project Leadership Leadership in the context of a project, e.g. leading with a focus on the project's
goals and objectives and the effectiveness and efficiency of the process.
Project Management
Tools, processes, skills and behaviors that are used to guide project
Project Manager (PM) The individual responsible for managing a project.
Project Objectives Project scope expressed in terms of outputs, required resources and timing.
Project Organization The orderly structuring of project participants.
Project Organizational
A graphical display of the project’s organization structure.
Term Definition
Project Plan A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project
control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning
assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among stakeholders, and
document approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan may
be summary or detailed.
Project Procurement The processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope
from outside the performing organization. It consists of procurement
planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract
administration, and contract closeout.
Project Repository A place (either physical or virtual) established for the consistent and effective
storage and retrieval of all project information for the efficient use by the
project manager and his/her project Team.
Project Reviews, , An evaluation of current project results or procedures.
Project Schedule The planned dates for performing activities and the planned dates for meeting
Project Scope The work that must be done to deliver a product with the specified features
and functions.
The person who has ultimate authority over the project. The executive sponsor
provides project funding, resolves issues and scope changes, approves major
deliverables and provides high-level direction. They also champion the project
within their organization.
Depending on the project, and the organizational level of the executive
sponsor, they may delegate day-to-day tactical management to a project
sponsor. If assigned, the project sponsor represents the executive sponsor on a
day-to-day basis, and makes most of the decisions requiring sponsor approval.
If the decision is large enough, the project sponsor will take it to the executive
Project Team Building The forming of a group of people into a team that is to work together for the
benefit of the project. It can be achieved in a formal manner by use of startup
meetings, seminars, workshops, etc. and in an informal manner by getting the
team to work well together. Motivating and resolving conflicts between
individual members of the team are important elements of teamwork. Cultural
characteristics of the team members should be given full consideration.
Different cultures create different working needs.
Project Team
The full-time and part-time resources assigned to work on the deliverables of
the project, and achieve the project objectives. They are responsible for:
· Understanding the work to be completed
· Planning out the assigned activities in more detail if needed.
· Completing assigned work within the budget, timeline and quality
· Informing the Project Manager of issues, scope changes, risk and
quality concerns
· Proactively communicating status and managing expectations
The project team can be made up from within one functional department or
organization, or from many. A cross-functional team has members from
multiple departments or organizations, and typically involves matrix
Projectized Organization Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to
assign priorities and to direct the work of individuals assigned to the project.
Quality Assurance (QA) 1) The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to
provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality control.
Term Definition
Quality Control (QC) 1) The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they
comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate
causes of unsatisfactory performance. 2) The organizational unit that is
assigned responsibility for quality control.
Quality Management That aspect of the overall management function that determines and
implements the quality policy.
Quality Management
A document setting out the specific quality practices, resources and sequence
of activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract or project.
Quality Measurement See Quality Metrics
Quality Metrics The tools and techniques of quality measurement that include: benefit/cost
analysis, benchmarking, flowcharting, both cause and effect diagrams and
system or process charts, design of experiments, and cost of quality.
Quality Plan A plan identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project, and
determining how to satisfy them.
An information vehicle that provides a precise description of a specific
physical item, procedure, or result for the purpose of purchase and/or
implementation of the item or service.
Assignment Matrix
A structure that relates the project organization structure to the work
breakdown structure to help ensure that each element of the project’s scope is
assigned to a responsible individual.
Risk Assessment The process of identifying potential risks, quantifying their likelihood of
occurrence and assessing their likely impact on the project.
Risk Avoidance Risk avoidance is changing the project plan to eliminate the risk or to protect
the project objectives from its impact. It is a tool of the risk response planning
Risk Evaluation
A template designed to assist the project manager in an assessment of the risks
associated with the project.
Risk Identification Determining which risks might affect the project and documenting their
characteristics. Tools used include brainstorming and checklists.
Risk Management An organized assessment and control of project risks.
Risk Management Plan Documents how the risk processes will be carried out during the project. This
is the output of risk management planning.
Risk Metrics The tools and techniques for risk monitoring and control. They include:
project risk response audits, periodic project risk reviews, earned value
analysis, technical performance measurement, and additional risk response
Risk Mitigation Risk mitigation seeks to reduce the probability and/or impact of a risk to
below an acceptable threshold.
Schedule Control
A system for controlling changes to the project schedule.
Determining the start and finish dates for project activities, using tools and
techniques that include mathematical analysis (CPM, GERT, and PERT),
duration compression, simulation, resource leveling, project management
software and coding structure.
Schedule Management
A system for the management or rearrangement of the activities in a project
schedule to improve the outcome based on the latest available information.
Schedule Tracking A process of periodically documenting the factors affecting time constraint
status during the course of a project.
Schedule Variance 1)_ Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the
actual completion of that activity. 2) In earned value, EV less BCWS = SV.
Scope Definition Subdividing the major deliverables into smalle r, more manageable
components to provide better control.
Scope Management Plan A plan describing the management of the project's scope, from given goals
and objectives, through explicit definition, to production, to satisfactory
Term Definition
delivery of the required product.
Scope Statement
The scope statement provides a documented basis for making future project
decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project
scope among the stakeholders. As the project progresses, the scope statement
may need to be revised or refined to reflect approved changes to the scope of
the project.
Sensitivity Analysis A method of testing the degree of sensitivity of a system, whether physical or
notional, to incremental changes to its variables. This analysis enables the
determination of those variables that are the most significant, and possibly the
selection of the best or optimal settings or solution to a problem.
Simulations A simulation uses a project model that translates the uncertainties specified at
a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at
the level of the total project. Project simulations use computer models and
estimates of risk at a detailed level, and are typically performed using the
Monte Carlo technique.
Staffing Plan A plan that identifies competent people suited to the various types of work
involved in the project that becomes the basis for determining the project
Stakeholder Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or
whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project
execution or project completion. They may also exert influence over the
project and its results.
Management Plan
A plan for the management of expectations of the people who have a vested
interest in the outcome of the project.
Statement of Work
A description of all the work required to complete a project, which is provided
by the customer.
Status Report A written report given to both the project team and to a responsible person on
a regular basis stating the position of an activity, work package, or whole
project. Status Reports should be used to control the project and to keep
management informed of project status.
Strong Matrix
Any organization having more characteristics of a projectized organization
than a functional organization. That is, more full-time project mangers with
considerable authority and full-time project administration staff.
Total Quality
Management (TQM)
A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within
an organization.
Variance Any actual or potential deviation from an intended or budgeted figure or plan.
A variance can be a difference between intended and actual time. Any
difference between the projected duration for an activity and the actual
duration of the activity. Also, the difference between projected start and finish
dates and actual or revised start and finish dates.
Walk-Throughs Either
· The examination of the quality of an operational procedure or test by
simulating the actual execution but bypassing high risk or expensive
operations. It ensures that personnel and equipment are ready to carry
out the real thing, or
· A peer group mentally stepping through software design and logic
flow with test cases to identify errors.
Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS)
A deliverable -oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines
the total work scope of the project. Each descending level represents an
increasingly detailed definition of the project work.
Work Package A deliverable at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure, when that
deliverable may be assigned to another project manger to plan and execute.
This may be accomplished through the use of a subproject where the work
Term Definition
package may be further decomposed into activities.

Monday, September 1, 2008

Improve Interpersonal Skills

Try these 10 helpful tips for improving your interpersonal skills:

Smile. Few people want to be around someone who is always down in the dumps. Do your best to be friendly and upbeat with your coworkers. Maintain a positive, cheerful attitude about work and about life. Smile often. The positive energy you radiate will draw others to you.

Be appreciative. Find one positive thing about everyone you work with and let them hear it. Be generous with praise and kind words of encouragement. Say thank you when someone helps you. Make colleagues feel welcome when they call or stop by your office. If you let others know that they are appreciated, they’ll want to give you their best.

Pay attention to others. Observe what’s going on in other people’s lives. Acknowledge their happy milestones, and express concern and sympathy for difficult situations such as an illness or death. Make eye contact and address people by their first names. Ask others for their opinions.

Practice active listening. To actively listen is to demonstrate that you intend to hear and understand another’s point of view. It means restating, in your own words, what the other person has said. In this way, you know that you understood their meaning and they know that your responses are more than lip service. Your coworkers will appreciate knowing that you really do listen to what they have to say.

Bring people together. Create an environment that encourages others to work together. Treat everyone equally, and don't play favorites. Avoid talking about others behind their backs. Follow up on other people's suggestions or requests. When you make a statement or announcement, check to see that you have been understood. If folks see you as someone solid and fair, they will grow to trust you.

Resolve conflicts. Take a step beyond simply bringing people together, and become someone who resolves conflicts when they arise. Learn how to be an effective mediator. If coworkers bicker over personal or professional disagreements, arrange to sit down with both parties and help sort out their differences. By taking on such a leadership role, you will garner respect and admiration from those around you.

Communicate clearly. Pay close attention to both what you say and how you say it. A clear and effective communicator avoids misunderstandings with coworkers, collegues, and associates. Verbal eloquence projects an image of intelligence and maturity, no matter what your age. If you tend to blurt out anything that comes to mind, people won’t put much weight on your words or opinions.

Humor them. Don’t be afraid to be funny or clever. Most people are drawn to a person that can make them laugh. Use your sense of humor as an effective tool to lower barriers and gain people’s affection.

See it from their side. Empathy means being able to put yourself in someone else’s shoes and understand how they feel. Try to view situations and responses from another person’s perspective. This can be accomplished through staying in touch with your own emotions; those who are cut off from their own feelings are often unable to empathize with others.

Don't complain. There is nothing worse than a chronic complainer or whiner. If you simply have to vent about something, save it for your diary. If you must verbalize your grievances, vent to your personal friends and family, and keep it short. Spare those around you, or else you’ll get a bad reputation.

Friday, August 29, 2008


What It Means to Be a Leader
Leadership Skills for Managers, Fourth Edition
by Charles M. Cadwell

1) Providing Direction
Providing direction is centered on the visioning process. The best leaders work with their teams to define the organization’s values, guiding principles, mission, and vision. Throughout the process these leaders are also concerned about creating alignment between the vision and the organization’s strategic plan. Within that organization framework, individual goals are established that are also aligned with the vision.
Once the foundation is laid, leaders focus on making the vision a reality. This process includes developing various methods of communicating the vision and ensuring a mutual understanding among team members of what the vision means. Next, their function is to help build a bridge from the current reality that allows the organization (or division or team) to cross over to the other side to reach the vision. The ultimate objective is to institutionalize the vision throughout the organization so that all team members understand what it means and can see how their jobs contribute to accomplishing the vision.

2) Leading by Example
People look to their leaders for clues as to how they should act. The best leaders willingly assume responsibility for being a role model. They make a conscious effort to lead by example and to lead with passion. They know that their attitude and approach to the job is what inspires others to act—so they focus on being positive and combating the negative. At the same time, they understand the facts of the situation and do not try to present the situation through rose-colored glasses.
Effective leaders recognize that while they have position power by virtue of their place in the organization hierarchy, they must always act in a manner that continually earns the respect of the people within the organization. These leaders are intent on using their position power in a positive manner and on sharing resources with those who need them. They also recognize the importance of continually developing their own business knowledge and skills to increase their leadership competence and set an example for others.
Aspiring leaders who lack formal position power can take steps to develop their position power, increase their visibility, and show their leadership skills. For example, they can ask for increased responsibility or a bigger workload and then demonstrate their ability to get more done. They can take on new tasks that have not been done previously and demonstrate their ability to organize the tasks and to get the job done. Those who want to be seen as leaders can also make themselves more visible by making oral presentations that put them in front of more senior executives.

3)Enabling Others
The best leaders realize that they can’t do everything themselves. They understand that to even attempt such a strategy is a recipe for almost sure failure. One of their strategies is to grow new leaders who have the capability and capacity to help the organization succeed. They realize that if the organization is to grow, it must continually be developing more leaders.
Effective leaders also focus on stretching their existing team leaders so that they can assume even more responsibilities. They personally act as coaches and mentors or, at the very least, ensure that systems are in place that ensure other leaders within the organization are involved in developing more leaders. The best leaders also take time to provide their team members with a realistic assessment of their performance. They aren’t afraid to face the challenge of discussing performance shortfalls. They know that a realistic assessment of performance is critical if people are to perform to their level of capability. Leaders who are successful know that assessment is a two-way street and are also open to having their own performance assessed by those with whom they work.

4)Sharing Power
Without followers there is no need for leaders. Thus, obtaining and developing followers is by definition a requirement for leadership success. Effective leaders know what qualities to look for in followers and how to best use and develop those qualities to help the organization be successful. They also empower their people by giving them more autonomy, authority, and control over critical parts of their work. Part of sharing power involves building teams within the organization that are committed to making the vision a reality. Effective leaders are able to get people to work together for the common good rather than to wage turf battles that keep the organization from achieving its goals and objectives.
Once teamwork is established, the best leaders also foster a collaborative atmosphere where people’s ideas and opinions are valued. They work hard to build trust, both among their people and between themselves and their people. They make the best possible use of the complementary strengths and abilities of their people to move the organization forward. They also are believers in providing recognition and reward when people help the organization achieve its goals. They realize that even the smallest rewards, when applied properly, can have a significant impact on performance.

5) Seeking a Better Way
Effective leaders are always seeking a better way to do things. They are not satisfied with the way things are, but instead focus on the way things could be. They see problems as opportunities and are always on the lookout for solutions. Effective leaders reward people who are willing to challenge the daily routine and who are willing to take calculated risks to move the organization forward. They fully embrace the idea that “without risk there is no reward.”
Seeking a better way also means focusing on continuous improvement. Effective leaders understand that staying the course can be fraught with pitfalls. They continually benchmark themselves to their competition to determine whether they are moving ahead or falling behind—because they know there is no standing still. As they seek better ways, they remain alert for opportunities, they make timely (but not hasty) decisions, and they demonstrate tenacity. Above all, effective leaders work hard to maintain an entrepreneurial spirit within the organization. A spirit, that when fed, can lead the organization to new heights.

The Art & Science of Project Management

Project Management - Why Project Management?

Project Management - Why Project Management?

Project Management Challenge

How to Manage Difficult people

10 Management Tips for Managing Difficult People


Wednesday, August 27, 2008





Tips for Project Sucess


Project Management – Top Ten Tips for Success

Want to perfect your project management skills? Here are ten tips* for success.
1. Be clear about the business result that your project has been
commissioned to produce.
2. Plan the work the best way to get it done, then crash and fast track to get
to the requested date.
3. As you complete an iteration of planning be sure to desk test this iteration
against the previous iteration to verify you are still in scope.
4. Build completion criteria for each task. Completion criteria will keep both
the project manager and the person working the task clear about what
done looks like.
5. Team norms will help your team work together effectively.
6. The effect of taking on a change request is not always equal to the
number of days provided in the estimate. Be aware of the incremental
7. Build cost estimates for every task regardless of whether you are held
accountable for a budget or not. You need the practice and later you can
use these figures for Earned Value Management.
8. Calculate the cost of quality at the end of the planning phase and several
times during the execution of the project. Doing this will help hone your
skills to deliver a better quality project.
9. Build an effective plan to work with your executives the same way you
work with your team.
10. Have an attitude of success. It’s contagious.

Good website






Tuesday, August 26, 2008




Project Management


Leadership Style


Motivation and Leadership Styles


Type of Project Managers

Managers Vs Leaders


Leaders Vs Managers: Adaptive Leaders Pursue Change; Old Style Managers Cling To The Past

What Is The Difference Between Leaders And Managers! I

What It Means to Be a Leader
Leadership Skills for Managers, Fourth Edition
by Charles M. Cadwell
Leadership and management are not the same thing, but neither are they mutually exclusive. Being a successful manager does not mean one will be a successful leader. Management skills and abilities, however, don’t go away when one becomes a leader. Strong management skills provide the foundation on which effective leaders develop new skills that complement those that made them successful as managers. The differences are largely matters of focus and movement from the smaller details to the bigger picture. Ultimately, the key to success is the ability to integrate new leadership skills with current management skills. Some ways to distinguish the differences between leaders and managers are summarized in below

Leaders Innovate; Managers Administer
Managers usually focus on the daily, weekly, and monthly tasks that need to be done to keep the organization running smoothly. They emphasize meeting short-term deadlines and goals while dealing with the problems that are occurring at the moment.

Management skills provide a foundation for developing leadership skills. Effective leaders have the ability to apply the appropriate skill at the appropriate time and in the appropriate place.

Leaders, on the other hand, often focus on upsetting the daily routine. They are willing to take risks and try new ideas. They don’t let the crisis of the day slow them down. Instead, they look for new and better ways of doing things.

1) Leaders Seek Challenges; Managers Seek to Maintain the Status Quo
Frequently, managers tend to accept the status quo and strive to keep things they way they are. They don’t like to rock the boat; in fact, some would rather not get in the boat at all. They want to keep their feet on dry ground. As such, many managers are inclined to resist new ideas and untried ways of doing things. Managers often have too much to do today to worry about tomorrow. They are not concerned about new ways of doing things as long as what they are doing is working. The manager’s motto is, “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it.”

In contrast, effective leaders challenge themselves and their people. The best leaders are constantly seeking challenges. They are looking for new worlds to conquer—something different from the norm. They quickly become bored with doing the same tasks over and over. They thrive on doing something they haven’t done before and doing it until they succeed. Effective leaders consider improvement a way of life. They tend to ask questions such as: “How can we make this better? What if we did it this way?” Leaders don’t pretend to have all the answers, but they do have a lot of questions.

2) Leaders Think Long Term; Managers Think Short to Mid Term
Leaders have goals that excite and inspire people. Leaders have a vision of what they want the organization and its people to become—a vision that has been shaped with input from the people in the organization. Leaders make it a priority to communicate that vision so everyone in the organization has a clear sense of the direction. Effective leaders use their vision to motivate their staff to achieve their full potential.
At the same time, effective leaders don’t lose sight of their short-term responsibilities. That’s where being a good manager remains an essential part of the equation. Those who are successful can focus on both short-term and long-term responsibilities.

3)Leaders Motivate and Inspire; Managers Control
Successful leaders have the ability to inspire and motivate the people who work for them. Managers, on the other hand, sometimes are more interested in controlling their people. For example, a manager tends to rely on policies and procedures when making decisions about how to interact with employees. A leader, on the other hand, is dedicated and committed to doing what’s right regardless of what the policy says.
This dedication and commitment shows in the enthusiasm leaders have for getting the job done. Their enthusiasm rubs off on their people and gets them excited too. The best leaders understand that their people are always watching for clues as to how they should act.
Leaders are truly concerned about satisfying the basic human needs for achievement and recognition. Leaders know that their people want to make a contribution and to have control over what they do. Leaders work with their people to set goals, rather than dictating the goals. Leaders support the efforts of their employees to achieve their goals by providing regular, consistent feedback and recognition when they succeed. Successful managers do many of the same things, which helps them make the transition to leadership positions.

4) Leaders Worry About Doing the Right Things; Managers Worry About Doing Things Right

Managers are concerned about being efficient, while leaders are concerned about being effective. Managers want to get things done as quickly and efficiently as possible. They want to tie up all the loose ends and make sure all the t’s are crossed and i’s are dotted. Getting the critical details right takes priority.
Effective leaders focus on results to be sure that the organization is effective. They aren’t afraid to be wrong once in a while, as long as they are trying to be effective. Leaders ask themselves, “Why am I here?” They are constantly challenging themselves to look down the road and to determine how they can be most effective.

5)Leaders Have a Wide Circle of Influence; Managers Have Limited Influence
Effective leaders not only impact the organization they are part of, but they also influence people outside the organization. They are recognized for the leadership they provide beyond the boundaries of the organization. For example, leaders such as Jefferson, Ghandi, and Churchill are recognized for the contributions they made beyond their own leadership province. Successful leaders of individual companies are, in turn, recognized as leaders within their industries. Bill Gates is a recognized leader of the technology community in addition to leading his own dominant company.
Many managers, on the other hand, tend to have very little impact outside their own sphere of influence. You can probably think of managers who dominate their own departments, but have little influence with the organization as a whole. Those who make the transition to leadership are people whose opinions and ideas are sought out by others. When they speak, they are the ones to whom upper-echelon leadership listens. They are recognized as the up and coming leaders in their organizations